Thursday, 30 August 2012

Causes ,effects symptoms and treatments of eye cancer

Eye cancer: Eye cancer occurs when the cells in the eye grow unusually without any controlling limit. These uncontrolled cancer cells grows rapidly and forms a tumor. These tumors can occur in any parts of the eye. Generally tumors are of two types.

Benign tumor: This tumor is not cancerous. They can be treated easily. They don\'t spread to other parts of the body.

Malignant tumor: This tumor is cancerous, they causes damage to the adjacent organs by spreading the cancer cells at high rate. The cells in this tumor invade the distant organs and forms new tumors through blood flow or by lymphatic system. The new tumor has the same characteristic features of the primary tumor. For example, if the eye cancer spreads to the mouth, the cancer cells in the mouth are actually belonging to the eye cancer cells. Then this disease is called as metastatic eye cancer.
Eye cancer is a combination of several diseases with different types of causes, symptoms and treatments. Basically cells are the basic unit of life they grow and divide into more cells when the body requires them. These cells forms the tissues and then organs, they are the building blocks of the body system. If there is an abnormal growth and division of cells without any controlling limit, then it results in forming tumor (excess tissue) in the body. Intraocular cancer is the name for the cancer in the eye ball.

Types of Eye cancer (Intraocular cancer):

Eyelid carcinoma: This disease is not so dangerous. It can be removed easily by surgery treatment. This cancer is caused by skin cancer.

Hemangioma: It is a being tumor, easily treated by surgery process. This cancer attacks retina and choroid

Conjunctival melanoma: This tumor spreads to the lymph nodes if it is not treated at an early stage. This tumor occurs in the conjunctiva membrane of the eye.

Retinoblastoma: This cancer is very rare and occurs only in childhood. This tumor can be removed easily by chemotherapy process.

Intraocular lymphoma: this cancer occurs in the eye ball .This disease is not easy to diagnose because it a variation of nervous system lymphoma.

Melanoma: This type of cancer occurs mainly in adults. This cancer occurs due to excess growth of melanocytes cells. This cancer is also called as uveal melanoma.

Causes of eye cancer: The exact causes for this cancer are not found but the risk factors for this eye cancer are identified. Here is the list of risk factors.

Risk factors for eye cancer:

Age: Generally aged people will be suffering from this intraocular melanoma cancer. if the age is above 35
years, there will be more chances of getting this cancer due to the increase in risk factors.

Gender: Many of the research programs say that men and women are equally affected by intraocular melanoma.

Race: Intraocular melanoma is mostly found in white people than any other race.

Family pedigree: Family hereditary may cause intraocular melanoma.

Previous cancer history: If the person faces any other cancer disease will have more chances of having intraocular melanoma.

Symptoms and signs for eye cancer: In the early stage of intraocular melanoma, we can\'t find any symptoms. Later in the advancement of this disease causes some problems like:
• Loosing some part of vision
• Trouble in seeing
• Seeing flashes of light
• Seeing flashy lines or floating objects.
• Facing dark spot in the iris region
Some people may find these symptoms and some people may not find any symptoms during the starting stage. The most common symptom of intraocular melanoma is painless loss of vision. So, if you find any of the symptoms in the list, consult your doctor for diagnoses of this problem.

Treatment methods for eye cancer: Treatment for this disease depends upon several factors like tumor size, shape, age of the patient, patient health condition and cancer type.
Active surveillance, surgery, radiotherapy and laser therapy are the major types of treatments available for curing brain cancer.

Active surveillance: This process can be taken when the cancer grows slowly without causing any problems for several years. Doctor keeps on monitoring the cancer growth in the eye, if the cancer starts to effect the other parts, then the treatment process is started at that very time for curing it.

Surgery: Surgery is carried to remove the cancer tumor. Surgery can be carried in the early stages of the tumor occurrence. Surgery will be taken place only if the tumor is located only in one part of the body. During the surgery process the damaged lymph nodes are also removed along with the tumor. This surgery process depends on the location, area and size of the tumor. There are four types of surgery treatments for curing intraocular melanoma. They are:

Enucleation: This process is for removing the eye.
Iridectomy: This process is for removing a certain part of iris
Endoresection: This process is for the removal of choroidal tumor in the eye.
Iridocyclectomy: This process is for removal of iris and ciliary.
In some cases surgery alone cannot cure this intraocular disease. So, depending upon the severity of this eye disease, radiation therapy and laser therapy were given.

Radiation therapy: Radiotherapy: Radiotherapy is a process of removing cancer cells by using high intensity x-rays. These high energy x-rays are aimed at the cancer affected part of the body to destroy the cancer cells. The most common type of radiation therapy used is external radiation therapy.

External radiation therapy: Radiations are given from the external side of the body. The radiations are aimed at the effected area from outside the body.

Internal radiations: Radiations are passed into the body by making some small incisions in the eye area. This treatment gives better results than the external radiation therapy.

Laser therapy: In this process laser beams are used to kill cancer cells in the eye .The tumor in the eye is removed by using the heat in the form of laser. This treatment is also called as thermotherapy .This process contains fewer side effects than radiation therapy. This treatment can be given after having surgery and radiation therapy.

Eye cancer is also called as intraocular melanoma cancer. It occurs generally in aged people due to increase in risk factors. In the early stage of this cancer we can\'t find any symptoms. Surgery, radiation therapy and laser therapy are the treatment process available for this cancer. This cancer contains metastatic characteristics because it spreads to other parts of the body.

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Author shares information on causes,symptoms,effects,risk factors,preventions,treatments, prognosis of diseases like cancer,diabetes,heart attack, obesity and also shares information on Mens health,womens health,sexual health, mental health, health and fitness, pregnancy,Blood disorders, Muscles, bones and joints, Health issues, and Weight loss

Anal Cancer Surgery



Anal Cancer
Anal cancer is a disease in which malignant (cancer) cells form in the tissues of the anus. The anus is the end of the large intestine, below the rectum, through which stool (solid waste) leaves the body. The anus is formed partly from the outer, skin layers of the body and partly from the intestine. Two ring-like muscles, called sphincter muscles, open and close the anal opening to let stool pass out of the body. The anal canal, the part of the anus between the rectum and the anal opening, is about 1½ inches long.

Anatomy of the lower digestive system, showing the colon and other organs.
The skin around the outside of the anus is called the perianal area. Tumors in this area are skin tumors, not analcancer.
Being infected with the human papillomavirus (HPV) can affect the risk of developing anal cancer.

Types of anal cancer

Squamous cell cancer
About 9 out of 10 (90 anal cancers are squamous cell cancers, sometimes called epidermoid cancers.
There are 3 types of squamous cell anal cancer
* Large cell keratinising
* Large cell non keratinising (also called transitional)
* Basaloid
Non keratinising and basaloid cancers are sometimes grouped together as ‘cloacogenic\' anal cancer. A keratinising cancer has keratin (the protein that forms your hair and nails) in the cancer cells. This type of anal cancer starts in the transitional zone of the anal canal, where the squamous cells meet the glandular cells. All the squamous cell types of anal cancer are treated in the same way.

Non epidermoid cancer
The other 1 out of 10 anal cancers (10 are adenocarcinoma, small cell cancers, \' undifferentiated\' cancers (known as basaloid cancers) and melanomas. This group is known as non-epidermoid cancers. They behave differently to squamous cell anal cancers, so the treatment is different.
Cancers that start at the anal margin, usually look more like normal cells (they are \' well differentiated\'). Anal margin tumours are more common in men than women. Cancers that start higher up in the anal canal are more common in women.

This is a rare type of anal cancer that affects the glandular cells that produce mucus in the anal canal. Only 5of anal cancers are this type. This type of anal cancer is treated in the same way as rectal cancer. Basal cell carcinoma

This is a type of skin cancer and it develops in the area around the anus. You can find information about treatment of basal cell cancers in the skin cancer section of CancerHelp UK.

This is another type of skin cancer. These cancers develop from the cells that produce melanin, the pigment or colour for the skin. Treatment is the same as for other melanomas.

Diagnosis of Anal Cancer
Possible signs of anal cancer include bleeding from the anus or rectum or a lump near the anus.
These and other symptoms may be caused by anal cancer. Other conditions may cause the same symptoms. A doctor should be consulted if any of the following problems occur: -
* Bleeding from the anus or rectum.
* Pain or pressure in the area around the anus.
* Itching or discharge from the anus.
* A lump near the anus.
* A change in bowel habits.
Tests that examine the rectum and anus are used to detect (find) and diagnose anal cancer.

The following tests and procedures may be used: -
* Physical exam and history: - An exam of the body to check general signs of health, including checking for signs of disease, such as lumps or anything else that seems unusual. A history of the patient\'s health habits and past illnesses and treatments will also be taken.
* Digital rectal examination (DRE): - An exam of the anus and rectum. The doctor or nurse inserts a lubricated, gloved finger into the lower part of the rectum to feel for lumps or anything else that seems unusual.
* Anoscopy: - An exam of the anus and lower rectum using a short, lighted tube called an anoscope.
* Proctoscopy: - An exam of the rectum using a short, lighted tube called a proctoscope.
* Endo-anal or endorectal ultrasound: - A procedure in which an ultrasound transducer (probe) is inserted into the anus or rectum and used to bounce high-energy sound waves (ultrasound) off internal tissues or organs and make echoes. The echoes form a picture of body tissues called a sonogram.
* Biopsy: - The removal of cells or tissues so they can be viewed under a microscope by a pathologist to check for signs of cancer. If an abnormal area is seen during the anoscopy, a biopsy may be done at that time.

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Most common Types of Cancer -Thyroid Cancer


Kyle J. Norton

Thyroid is one of the largest endocrine glands found in the neck, below the Adam\'s Apple with the function of regulating the body use of energy, make of proteins by producing its hormones as a result of the stimulation of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) produced by the anterior pituitary.

Thyroid cancer is defined as condition in which the cells in the thyroid gland have become cancerous.

Types of thyroid cancer
The most common types of thyroid cancer include
1. Papillary thyroid cancer
Papillary thyroid cancer, the most common type of thyroid cancer, makes up about 80 percent of all thyroid cancers. The cancer tends to develop in the women age group between 30-40 years of age and grow slowly. Papillary thyroid cancer can be cure if diagnosed early.
2. Follicular thyroid cancer
Follicular thyroid cancer, the second most common thyroid cancer, makes up about 15 percent of all case. It is a low grow cancer with peak onset ages 40 through 60. Follicular thyroid cancer can be treat successful, if diagnosed early.
3. Medullary thyroid cancer
Medullary thyroid cancer, third most common thyroid cancer makes up about 3 percent of all cases, arise from thyroid hormone producing cells with abnormally high levels of calcitonin. Medullary thyroid cancer tends to grow slowly but it can spread to distant parts of the body, if not treated early.
4. Anaplastic thyroid cancer
Anaplastic thyroid cancer the rare case of thyroid cancer, makes up less than 2 percent of all cases. The cancer cells tend to grow and spread very quickly. Anaplastic thyroid cancer is deadly, with only 10of alive rate, 3 years after it is diagnosed.
1. Lump in the neck
Due to uncontrollable cells growth and only 5of this lumps are found to be cancerous.
2. Enlarged lymph node
Cancer has invaded the lymph nodes and its surrounding
3. Change of voice
Hoarseness or difficulty speaking in a normal voice as the tumor has affected the voice-box region.
4. Pain or discomfort in the throat or neck.
5. Problem of swallowing
As a result of tumor has affected the esophagus or of enlarged lymph node
6. Difficult breathing
Cancer may have invaded the lung or may affect either the upper or lower of respiratory track or due to enlarged lymph node
7. Etc.

Causes and risk factors
1. Age
Risk of thyroid cancer increase with age after 30
2. Gender
Women are twice at risk to develop thyroid cancer than men.
3. Race
In US, according to statistic, Caucasians are at greater risk than African Americans to develop thyroid cancer.
5. Exposure to radiation
People who exposed to the radiation therapy at a young age to treat certain cancer are at higher risk to develop thyroid cancer at later age.
6. Family history
Increased risk of thyroid cancer if one of your direct family has a history of thyroid cancer
7. chronic goiter
Risk of thyroid cancer increased if you have a history of enlargement of the thyroid gland.
8. Exposure to certain chemical agents
In a study by Copenhagen researchers, the effect of chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins on the thyroid. Ron and co-authors noted the correlation between chemicals and increased TSH and the resulting potential 'in an increased opportunity for mutations and the development of cancer.'
9. Low level of iodine
People with life-long iodine deficiency are more likely to develop thyroid cancer.
10. Heredity
People born with mutation in the RET proto-oncogene are at risk in developing medullary thyroid cancer (MTC).
11. Etc.

Diagnosis and tests
After family history and careful physical examination, If you have a family history of medullary thyroid cancer, blood test for calcitoninis is necessary
1. Blood test
The blood is to determine the levels of calcitoninis, elevation of calcitoninis may be signed of thyroid cancer.

2. Thyroid scan
With the inject of asotope, your doctor can view the images capture which will be classified according the amount asotope of absorption by the thyroid gland. If the gland is actively taking up the isotope, ultrasound will show whether the abnormality is a cyst or not. Thyroid biopsy may be required to further assessment.

3. Thyroid biopsy
In thyroid biopsy, a sample ofthe effected area is taken by a thin needle instrument (thin needle aspirate, under local anesthesia and examined by a pathologist under microscopy to view the type and stage of the cancer.

4. CT Scan (computerized tomography)
A CT scan generates a large series of two-dimensional X-ray images taken around a single axis of rotation, to create a three-dimensional picture of the inside of the body in details.The pictures are viewed by your doctor to see the extent of the tumors abnormalities, such as spreading of cancer to the nearby structure and lymph nodes.

5. Etc.

The Grades of Thyroid cancer are depending to the tendency of spreading. Low grade cancers usually grow more slowly and are less likely to spread while high grade cancer indicates otherwise.

Thyroid cancer is classified as 5 stages
1. Stage 0
If the cancerous cell have not penetrated in deeper tissue but in the surface of the thyroid lining.
2. Stage I
In stage I, The cancerous cells are no longer in the surface but have invaded into deep thyroid lining, but still completely inside the thyroid gland.
Stage IA1
The cancer is not ≤ 3 mm (1/8 inch) deep and ≤ 7 mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.1. Stage IA1:
The spreading is not less than 3mm(1/8 inch) deep and & less than 7mm (1/4 inch) wide.
a.2. Stage IA2: The invasion area is ≥ 3 mm but ≤ 5 mm (about 1/5 inch) deep and & less than 7 mm (about 1/4 inch) wide.

b. Stage IB:The cancer in this stage have invaded the connective tissue, & less than 5mm (1/5 inch).
b.1. Stage IB1:
Cancer is 4 cm large (1 3/4 inches).
b.2. Stage IB2:
Cancer is ≥ 4 cm (1 3/4 inches) but & less than 5cm (1/5 inch)

3. Stage II
In stage II, the cancerous cells have spread to distant tissues, but is still within the thyroid gland.

4. Stage III
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately surrounding the thyroid gland

5. Stage IV
In this stage, cancerous cells has spread to the tissues immediately outside of the thyroid gland, other distant parts of the body.

A. What to avoid
1. Potassium Iodide
Potassium Iodide (KI) is one of the drug which can absorb radioactive iodine cause of thyroid disease and cancer. Today it has been used worldwide to prevent thyroid cancer in people who are exposed to radioactive iodides.

2. Avoid exposure to radiation
People who exposed to the radiation therapy at a young age to treat certain cancer are at higher risk to develop thyroid cancer at later age. Extra precaution to prevent exposure the thyroid gland when X ray is taken.

3. Avoid Iodine deficiency
Increase Iodine intake from diet to prevent iodine deficiency cause of thyroid cancer.

4. Avoid certain chemical agents
Chemicals such as polychlorinated biphenyls and dioxins can increase the risk of thyroid cancer

5. Lose weight
In an article Published in the journal Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Preventionthe meta-study indicated that the risk of thyroid cancer increases for obese men at roughly the same rate as it does for women.

5. Avoid chlorine and fluoride
Chlorine and fluoride are chemically related to iodine and they can block iodine receptors

6. Etc.

B. Diet
1. Cruciferous vegetables
Cruciferous vegetables such as cauliflower, broccoli, cabbage, etc. beside contain high amount of antioxidants, but also phytonutrients that have been shown to help prevent the onset and halt the progression of certain cancers.

2. Green tea
In some clinical studies researchers suggested that the polyphenols in green tea, may play an important role in the prevention of cancer by killing cancerous cells and stopping their progression.

3. Garlic
An analysis of several case-controlled studies in Europe suggests an inverse association between garlic consumption and risk of common cancers.

4. Tomato
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.

5. Soy
In laboratory studies, saponins have shown the ability to inhibit the reproduction of cancer cells and slow the growth of tumors in several different tissues.

6. Etc.

C. Nutritional supplements
1. Free radicals scavengers
Vitamin A, C, E are free radical scavengers enhanced the immune system against the forming of free radicals and prevent the alternation of cell DNA cause of abnormal cell growth. For more information of how antioxidants help to treat cancer, click here

2. Modified citrus pectin
In a study of researcher found modified citrus pectin may help block the growth and metastasis of solid tumors.

3. Selenium
Research showed that selenium has a protective effect on various stages of cancer, including both the early and later stages of the disease. In a study in large groups of people, researchers found that in areas of the world where selenium levels in the soil are high, death rates from cancer are significantly lower than in areas where selenium levels are low.

4. Lycopene
Many studies showed that antioxidant lycopene in tomato inhibits cancer cell growth and exhibit apoptosis, causing cell death.

5. Beta -carotene
In some laboratory, animal, and human studies, researchers found that vitamin A, certain retinoids may also inhibit cancer development.

6. Etc.

A. In conventional medicine
Treatment of thyroid cancer not only depends on the stage, grade but also age of the patient. Thyroid cancer occurs in older people tends to be aggressive, while in young adulthood and adolescence are curative

1. Surgery
The objective of the surgery is to cure, especial in the younger age group. If the cancer is low-grow and in the early stage, in most case after the thyroid gland was removed, patient will need to take thyroxine tablets for the rest of his/her life. If the cancer has spread to the nearby lymph nodes, the lymph nodes are also removed in the same surgery.
If your blood indicates that you have an elevation of calcitoninis, an inherited medullary thyroid cancer, then surgery may be only treatment.

2. Radioactive Iodine
Radioactive iodine usually is also used to treat hyperthyroidism. In case of thyroid cancer, radioactive iodine helps to destroy any remaining thyroid cancer cells after surgery.
Since it is highly radioactive, avoid exposing radioactivity to your family members or other people, there are some instructions that you must follow for the first 5 days after your treatment
a. Drink plenty of fluids.
b. Avoid contact with children and pregnant women.
c. Sleep in your own room.
d. Use separate towels, face cloths, and sheets.
e. Wash above and your personal clothing separately for 5 days
f. Etc.

3. Radiotherapy
a. Radiation may be used for stages II, III, and IV to kill any cancer cells remaining in the body. By using high-energy x-rays or other types of radiation, radiation therapy kills the cancer cells and keep them from growing or regrowing.
b. Side effects
b.1. Fatigue
b.2. Chest pain
b.3. Heart problem
b.4. Short of breath
b.5. Skin discoloration or pinkness, irritation.
b.6. Etc.
In the elder, and if the cancer has spread, chemotherapy may be recommended

4. Chemotherapy
Chemotherapy is most use to treat with advance stage of cancer combined with radio therapy, as it has spread to a distant parts of the body by using drugs taken by mouth or injected into a vein or muscle of the patient to stop the growth of or to kill cancer cells.
b. Side effects
b.1. Nausea
b.2. Vomiting
b.3. Hair loss
b.4. Fatigue
b.5. Anemia
b.6. Mouth sores taste and smell changes
b.7. Infection
b.8. Etc.

B. Herbal medicine
1. Aloe
in some studies, researchers suggest that some chemical compounds of aloe, such as acemannan, aloeride, and di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may have immunomodulating and anticancer effects.

2. Absinthe
Absinthe is also known as Wormwood, a distilled, highly alcoholic beverage flowers extracted from leaves of the herb Artemisia absinthium. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer.

3. Fenugreek
Fenugreek is used both as a herb (the leaves) and as a spice (the seed), genus Trigonella, belonging to family Fabaceae. Vitro studies have shown that fenugreek exhibits chemopreventive properties against certain cancers.

4. Devil\'s Claw
The extract of Harpagophytum procumbens, commonly known as devil\'s claw,
In vitro studies, researchers found that cat\'s claw demonstrated anticancer effects against several cancer cell lines and has been reported to be effective in the treatment of lymphoma cancer, according to a study conducted by K. S. Wilson, M.D., which was published in the journal 'Current Oncology' in August 2009.

5. Celandine
Celandine is a herbaceous perennial plant, genus Chelidonium, belonging to the family Papaveraceae, native to Europe and western Asia and introduced widely in North America.
In a study of Ukrain (Ukrain is an anticancer drug based on the extract of the plant)– a new cancer cure? A systematic review of randomised clinical trials, researcher suggested, according to the data from randomised clinical trials that Ukrain to have potential as an anticancer drug. However, numerous caveats prevent a positive conclusion, and independent rigorous studies are urgently needed.

6. Etc

C. Traditional Chinese medicine
1. Pu Kong Yin (Dandelion Root)
In a study of the efficacy of dandelion root extract in inducing apoptosis in drug-resistant human melanoma cells, researchers found that treatment with this common, yet potent extract of natural compounds has proven novel in specifically inducing apoptosis in chemoresistant melanoma, without toxicity to healthy cells.

2. Xia Ku Cao (Selfheal Fruit-Spike)
Researchers found that cyasterone in Xia Ku Cao showed anti tumor activity.

3. Qing hao
Qing hao is also known as wormwood. In a study, researcher at the University of Washington researcher found that wormwood can be used as a promising potential treatment for cancer among the ancient arts of Chinese folk medicine.

4. Jie Geng
The Researchers found that aponins in Jie Geng have been shown to very significantly augment the cytotoxicity of immunotoxins and other targeted toxins directed against human cancer cells.

5. Gan Cao
Gan Cao is also known as Licorice root. In-vitro, researchers found that saponins in Gan Cao stimulate the immune system and inhibit Epstein-Barr virus expression and possess anti-cancer activities.

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About the Author
kyle J. Norton - I have been studying natural remedies for disease prevention for over 20 years and working as a financial consultant since 1990. Health Researcher and Article Writer. Master in Mathematics and BA in World Literature and Literary criticism

Cancer Preventive Measures and Tips

Cancer also called is Malignancy and Neoplasms. Cancer is a serious, but curable illness. Cancer is not one disease, but many diseases that occur in different areas of the body. Cancer is a disease characterized by disorderly division of cells, combined with the malignant behavior of these cells. Cancer is usually classified according to the tissue of origin more than the location of manifestations. Prognosis in most cases depends on the original staging of the disease. There are many theories about the cause of cancer. Cell division or cell proliferation is a physiological process that occurs in almost all tissues and under many circumstances. Normally the balance between proliferation and apoptosis, or programmed cell death, is tightly regulated to ensure the integrity of organs and tissues. Imbalances in the rates of cell division and cell death can lead to tumor growth in a tissue. Other events are usually required before metastasis can occur. Locally expansile tumors can also cause severe problems when they grow in certain locations, such as the head or airway. Environmental stimuli, or carcinogens, such as tobacco smoke, radiation, chemicals, or infectious agents, can cause cancer. Cancer can also occur in young children and adolescents, but it is rare. Some studies have concluded that pediatric cancers, especially leukemia, are on an upward trend.

Cancer is caused by exposure to carcinogens (cancer causing substances), which alter and damage DNA. Cancers are classified by the type of cell that resembles the tumor and, therefore, the tissue presumed to be the origin of the tumor. Carcinoma often develops as a result of a very improper lifestyle. Carcinoma: malignant tumors derived from epithelial cells. This group represents the most common cancers, including the common forms of breast, prostate, lung and colon cancer. Lymphoma and Leukemia: malignant tumors derived from blood and bone marrow cells Sarcoma: malignant tumors derived from connective tissue, or esenchymal cells. Mesothelioma: tumors derived from the mesothelial cells lining the peritoneum and the pleura. Glioma: tumors derived from glia, the most common type of brain cell. Germ cell tumor: tumors derived from reproductive cells, most commonly found in the testicle and ovary. Female and male infants have essentially the same overall cancer incidence rates, but white infants have substantially higher cancer rates than black infants for most cancer types. Relative survival for infants is very good for neuroblastoma, Wilms\' tumor and retinoblastoma, and fairly good (80 for leukemia, but not for most other types of cancer.

Tips on Cancer Prevention

1. Limit alcohol.

2. Maintain a healthy weight.

3. Stay physically active.

4. Consider limiting fat in your diet.

5. Avoid prolonged exposure to the sun and other UVA/UVB sources, such as tanning beds.

6. Use ample amounts of sunscreen or sunblock with an SPF of 15 or higher every day, even if it is cloudy.

7. Wear large framed or wrap-around sunglasses to protect the eye area.

8. Have your skin checked by a dermatologist regularly.

9. Do avoid all poisonous chemical substances such as cigarettes, alcohol, car exhaust fumes, as well as fumes belched by factory chimneys, which are very toxic.

10. Anilin is a carcenogenic substance used for colouring food, so try to avoid artificially dyed foods and instead look for natural foods.
About the Author
Juliet Cohen writes articles on health doctor and health care. She also writes articles on health disorders.

Interesting Facts about Breast Cancer

Without any doubt, cancer is still considered to be the worst among all the diseases. Though there are different types of cancer having their own levels of complexities, the word itself is sufficient to scare people. Millions of dollars are spent on research and development of drugs aimed at reducing the effects of cancer and finding a cure. But in order to prevent the disease to have life-threatening effects, early diagnosis is extremely beneficial. Effective treatment can be provided if all the known cancer types are discovered at an early stage. Due to the technological advancements in the field of medicine, there are medicines and procedures in place for treating patients who are in the early stages of cancer.

There are many women in this world who are affected with breast cancer. In this type of cancer, the breasts in women develop a tumor over a period of time and if not controlled, affect other parts of the body. There is another form of breast cancer where the tumor remains in its place of origin. The common breast cancer symptoms include increase in the shape and size of breasts, retraction of nipple, pain in breasts and abnormal discharge from nipples. Men are also prone to breast cancer, but they are very few in number as compared to women. The symptoms that are found in women are the same in case of men.

Self-examination can go a long way in determining the presence of lumps or mass around the breast. A hard lump in the breast is one of the most common symptoms of the disease that occurs in the early stage. A hard mass in the armpit can be a sign of the advancing of tumor. It is advisable for women to do self-examination of the breast periodically in order to detect the early symptoms of breast cancer. If any lumps are detected, the doctor can be consulted as soon as possible and this can avoid cancer from spreading. Older women must get mammography done once a year to detect the presence of any abnormal cells.

A biopsy reveals the presence of breast cancer in the patient and doctors determine the exact stage of the disease with the help of the report. Treatment is done according to the stage of the cancer, depending on whether or not it has spread to the other parts of the body. There are approximately four breast cancer stages and can be determined by different types of scans with the inclusion of blood test.

The main purpose behind any breast cancer treatment is to prevent or reduce the spread of the disease to other parts of the body. The patient\'s present medical condition determines the type of treatment provided by the doctor. The best way to remove the harmful cells in case of breast cancer responsible for the spread of the disease is surgery. Patients who get a part or the entire portion of breast removed can go for implants to get the breast in shape.

About the Author
Maryann is the author of this article on Breast Cancer Symptoms. Find more information, about Breast Cancer here

Types of Esophageal Cancer


David Hensley

The race and lifestyle of a person plays a major role in determining the type of esophageal cancer he is affected with.  It is very important to know about the symptoms and risks of esophageal cancer in order to detect them as early as possible because it is the key for best possible prognosis of esophageal cancer.  According to the esophageal cancer type the risk factors differ.  Normally the type of esophageal cancer is determined through laboratory analysis of the affected cells and tumor\'s location.

The main types of esophageal cancer are said to be the Squamous cell carcinoma and adenocarcinoma.  Squamous cell carcinoma is said to be a common cancer type found in patients all over the world.  But in US the risk of getting adenocarcinoma and other kinds of esophageal cancer are more when compared with squamous cell carcinoma.

Squamous cells are found in the esophageal lining\'s outermost layer that squamous cell carcinoma affects the esophagus\'s lining.  Adenocarcinoma is developed in the esophagus\'s lower part, the region very close to the stomach.  People who are affected by GERD or gastroesopahgeal reflux disease or reflux are more prone to adenocarcinoma.  Barrett\'s esophagus is a condition where the stomach acid gets into the esophagus damaging its lining over a period of time and there by increasing the risk of getting adenocarcinoma.

Various other types of esophageal cancer like the small cell carcinoma, lymphoma and spindle cell carcinoma are not observed in patients very often but are seen very rarely.  Normally these rare types of esophageal cancer might be caused due to the spreading of cancer from various other body parts like lungs, breasts in to the esophagus via lymph system or via blood stream.

Even though various kinds of esophageal cancer affect various esophagus parts in various ways, they are found to be similar in various aspects.  The symptoms are found to very similar in nature and the ways in which they get treated also are found to be similar (depending on stages).  The progression of esophageal cancer to happens in the same manner as they start from the outer most cell tissues and layers to the deep parts of the esophagus and from there to the surrounding organs and lymph nodes.

There are also certain differences found in the types of esophageal cancer as how and who get them.  Adenocarcinoma esophageal cancer is strongly associated with obesity and overweight than when compared with squamous cell carcinoma whereas squamous cell carcinoma is most often caused due to cigarette smoking, extensive use of tobacco and alcohol consumption.  Drinking very hot beverages also increases the risk of getting squamous cell carcinoma.

Natural Remedies:
There are certain natural remedies that offer a promising cure for esophageal cancer. Along with the natural remedies and a well-researched different diet pattern, a few simple adjustments to your lifestyle can make a huge difference to your efforts for prolonging the life for several years. You can increase your chances of surviving esophagus cancer now by trying these proven natural remedies discussed in

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Improve your survival chances to a great extent. Beat the deadly disease with the help of natural remedies. Visit for finding a promising natural cure for esophageal cancer to get rid of the killer disease completely.

Cancer Types And Causes


Cancer is An abnormal growth of cells which tend to proliferate in an uncontrolled way and, in some cases, to metastasize (spread).Cancer is not one disease. It is a group of more than 100 different and distinctive diseases.

Cancer can involve any tissue of the body and have many different forms in each body area. Most cancers are named for the type of cell or organ in which they start. If a cancer spreads (metastasizes), the new tumor bears the same name as the original (primary) tumor.
The frequency of a particular cancer may depend on gender. While skin cancer is the most common type of malignancy for both men and women, the second most common type in men is prostate cancer and in women, breast cancer.


A. Bone Cancer
B. Brain Cancer
C. Breast Cancer
D. Endocrine Cancer
E. Gastrointestinal Cancer
F. Gynecologic Cancer
G. Head & Neck Cancer
H. Leukemia
I. Lung Cancer
J. Lymphoma
K. Multiple Myeloma
L. Prostate Cancer
M. Skin Cancer
N. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

Importance of early detection of cancer symptoms

Since the cancer cells grow at a fast pace, if you are not able to read cancer symptoms early enough, the cancer might become completely incurable. If the cancer symptoms are diagnosed in the early stages (and if the cancer is localised to just one organ), you might actually be able to get a cure for cancer. So, early detection of cancer symptoms is quite important in determining your chances of survival. Moreover, if the cancer symptoms are not recognised quickly and diagnosis sought, cancer can spread to other organs too (which might make it completely incurable).

Pro-active detection of cancer symptoms

Cancer symptoms can be detected at a very stage by being proactive e.g. by going for cancer screening tests that help see the cancer symptoms early enough for curative action to be effective. In fact, too much of a delay could lead to curative action being not possible at all.

Super Foods

It is thought that up to one third of cancer related deaths could be diet related.
Many of the foods we eat today can in fact be harmful to the cells in our bodies, particularly \'fast food\', which often contains high rates of saturated fat.

A large European study has recently shown that \'junk food\' may in fact be a major cause of cancer of the pancreas, the urinary tract and of the womb, which makes saturated fat especially dangerous for women. There is however, an abundance of super foods that contain cancer fighting anti-oxidants and enzymes. These foods fall into a number of categories and it is best to look at their properties separately.

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Brain Cancer Types and Cures

In simple terms, brain cancer can be defined as an uncontrolled or abnormal growth of cells, which over a period of time, form into a lump in or around the brain. This tumor in brain or brain tumor, results in an intense degree of pain and suffering in its patients. Basically, there are two types of brain cancer: Primary and secondary. Brain cancers have a high potential of turning fatal. Among the most deadly form of brain cancer is glioblastoma multiforme as it is incurable. Brain cancer symptoms often resemble signs displayed in other common diseases and therefore are very evasive and confusing to detect. This is simply because a wide range of problems like headaches, seizures, abnormal vision, vomiting, neck pains and even stomach problems are potential brain tumor symptoms. This may be a prime reason as to why some experts do not agree towards a common list of symptoms of this disease.

It is also important to remember that not all brain tumors cause symptoms. Sometimes, tumors (an abnormal mass of tissue) from other parts of the body infect the brain, while there are tumors which form inside the brain itself. Brain cancer is a degenerative disease and requires repetitive and aggressive treatment such as surgery. Modern science has also made considerable progress in development of medications, methods, and diagnosis for brain cancer. As of now, surgery is sought after as the major cure for brain cancer. Researchers and scientists have made good progress in developing various medications and tools for treatment of this deadly disease. A brain tumor relates to all types of tumors in and around the brain.

There are two types of brain cancer : Primary brain cancer and Secondary brain cancer. Primary brain cancer is limited to the central nervous system; it rarely spreads outside the brain. A person affected thus can die from the uncontrolled growth of a tumor in brain. These types of tumors can be both cancerous as well as noncancerous and can cause serious complications or even severe symptoms like loss of hearing or vision. Secondary brain cancer is caused by cancerous cells from tumors that reside in other parts of the body. These cancerous cells spread to the brain through a process called metastasis. A classic example of brain cancer spreading to the brain from another site in the body is prostate cancer. This type of cancer spreads through formation of secondary tumors in the liver, from there to the lungs, then to the hips and finally - to the brain. Research shows that about twenty five percent of tumors in our body find their way into the brain, causing brain tumor in the process. Among cure for brain cancer options, the treatments may include surgery, radiation and chemotherapy.

Majority of the patients suffering from brain cancer are advised first and foremost to undergo surgery, as surgical intervention is considered to be safer than the other forms of invasive treatments. Radiation involves use of high-energy rays that destroy cancerous cells in the tumor. This prevents tumors from multiplying further and thus putting a stop to its further growth. Treatments involving chemotherapy are carried out by introducing toxic substances that attack cancerous cell formations. A single drug or a mixture of different drugs are administered orally or injected into the body, depending on the type and severity of the disease. People with brain cancer symptoms often suffer physically and psychologically and as such are deprived of a normal quality of life. But a proper line of treatment can help in reducing the miseries faced by the patients as well as the families of those affected.

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Having suffered long with the ailment, it\'s a feel good factor to advice about making health easy and life relaxing. Find more about the diseases instead of going for risky surgery & medications side effects.

Prostate Cancer - Types of Alternative Treatments

TThe normal measurement of a prostate gland is like the dimension of walnut. The gland is found in men only, and this sits below the urinary bladder and surrounds around the edge of urethra (the cylinder wherein urine and semen pour out of the human body). Swelling of the prostate is a situation that normally affects men with the age of fifty and over. The reason behind the enlargement is constantly not clear; however, hormone levels come to have a role.

Detoxification, Fasting and Colon Therapy for Enlarged Prostate - A short term purification diet can eliminate several causes of inflamed prostate which include constipation (probably bowel toxicity) and also waste products in the human blood.

Environmental Medication for Prostate Alternative - Pesticides and some chemicals were linked to the growth of prostate. Whole foods, natural diets may strengthen the poisons or pollutants.

Homeopathy for Inflamed Prostate - Some remedies may be useful, but constant problems of the prostate need an expert homeopath that may mold the remedy to the symptoms that appear in the individual.

Hydrotherapy for Inflamed Prostate -Irregular warm and chilly water sprays or sit baths may give pain relief.

Yoga for Inflamed Prostate - Inhalation exercises and postures may lessen stress, stabilizes the flow of energy and give exercises.

Prostate Alternative healing is classified as group of distinctive steps in the treatment of cancer that is not regarded as the usual treatment for cancer and is used instead of the standard treatments for tumors. Prostate Alternative is the assault of the glands of the prostate in the males through harmful cells. Cancer of the prostate is most prevalent in the U. S. and considered number three in the causes of cancer. The American Cancer Society has projected that there will be one case of prostate cancer that will occur in every six males during lifetime.
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Learn About The Different Colon Cancer Types


Cancer is a medical condition that has grown all too popular and impacting thousands of individuals. There are tons of various types of cancer. Several of the more common types are; breast cancer, liver cancer, prostate cancer, and colon cancer.

Out of these, colon cancer - referred to as colorectal cancer - is the most common. According to health experts 1 out of 17 individuals that live in the United States alone will be diagnosed with colon cancer. It has been ranked the third most average cancer that men will be diagnosed with.

What makes colon cancer so fatal is how difficult it is for doctors to spot it around an early stages. There are many different types of colon cancer that will bear upon a person differently. Some are more serious than other types and if they are not spotted early there is no promising treatment for the patient.


This type is the most average type of colon cancer that will start out in a patient\'s glands. This type has two contrasting subtypes that are; signet ring cell and mutinous. 90 - 95of patients who are treated for colon cancer will have the adenocarcinomas type.


This type of colon cancer will start out inside of the smooth muscle that is in the colon. Less than 2of individuals who are diagnosed with colon cancer will be diagnosed with this type. They also have a better chance of recovery.


Lymphomas is a rare type of colon cancer that normally begins inside the rectum before it travels to the colon. It is feasible for this to start in other sections of the body. When this takes place the cancer has an increased risk of circulating to the colon before moving to the rectum at a faster pace.


This is another rare type of colon cancer that will normally start out in a different area of a patient\'s body before it spreads to the colon and the rectum. Not even 2of people diagnosed with colon cancer will suffer from this medical condition.

Neuroendocrine Tumors

These tumours have been broken into two classifications; indolent and aggressive. The aggressive type are neuroendocrine tumors that can be large or small cell. Carcinoid tumors are indolent.
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There are several Colon Cancer Types that doctors can use different Treatments For Colon Cancer.

Mesothelioma A Rare Cancer Type


Ryan Stan
Mesothelioma is a rare but severe cancer type with no cure yet. This disease is caused by the exposure to asbestos (naturally occurring silicate). For a long time asbestos was considered a very usefully material and used accordingly in construction and other industries. The toxicity of this material was discovered in the early 1900s. Today asbestos is a banned material.

The three main mesothelioma types are as follows:

Pleural Mesothelioma -This type affects the lining of the lungs called the pleura, it is one of the most common mesothelioma forms, spreads a little faster than the other types. The associated symptoms are shortness of breath, chest pain and wheezing, dry cough.

Pericardial Mesothelioma -This is a very rare mesothelioma type. This type excludes surgery as treatment, because the cancer affects the pericardium (the fibroserous sac enclosing the heart). The associated symptoms are constant fatigue, palpitations of the heart, chest pain and other heart related problems.

Peritoneal Mesothelioma -This type of masothelioma cancer affects the lining of the abdominal cavity called the peritoneum. The associated symptoms are abdominal pain, build-up of fluid in the abdomen, weight loss, fever, fatigue and anemia.

Other mesothelioma types that occur:
Epithelial Mesothelioma -This type affects the lining of the chest and abdominal cavity.
Biphasic Mesothelioma -This form of mesothelioma cancer is a mixture between sarcomatoid and epithelioid cancer cells.
Cystic Mesothelioma - This is a benign form of peritoneal mesothelioma.
Multicystic Mesothelioma
Liver Mesothelioma -This is a metastatic development of this disease.
Brain Mesothelioma - This is a metastatic development of this disease.
Papillary Mesothelioma
Sarcomatoid Mesothelioma
Adenocarcinoma Mesothelioma
Desmoplastic Mesothelioma
Testicular Mesothelioma

Mesothelioma cancer is difficult to diagnose and to treat as well. The treatment options available now are:

Surgery – during mesothelioma surgery cancer cells are removed, surgery is also used in diagnoses purposes and to see how far the disease is developed.

Radiation – radiation therapy is used usually after surgery.

Chemotherapy – this option is the most common treatment method used mostly after surgery just as radiation therapy.

If you are interested in further information, contact mesothelioma doctors and centers and find the answers to your occurring questions.

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Ryan Stan is working with

Asbestos Lung Cancer Types and Treatment

Lung cancer of asbestos workers has increased greatly over the years. This is obviously due to the fact that the workers are exposed to the asbestos and breathe it in on a daily basis. This lung cancer (mesothelioma) is even more significant among the asbestos workers who smoke cigarettes.

Most lung cancer caused by excessive exposure to asbestos starts in the lining of the bronchi. The bronchi are the tubes in which the trachea or windpipe divide. It can also begin in other areas such as the alveoli, trachea, or bronchioles. The cancer usually develops slowly but once it occurs the cancer cells break away and then it spreads throughout various other body parts.

The most common places for people to breathe in asbestos is in mines, mills, factories, homes with asbestos, construction sites, during automotive repair, and pipefitting.

There are two major lung cancer types and they are:

- small cell lung cancer - The cancer cells are small and round.
- non-small cell lung cancer - The cancer cells are larger.

There have even been times when the cancer has a feature of both types. With small sell lung cancer the cells can multiply quickly and form large tumors. The tumors can then spread to the lymph nodes and to other various parts of the body.

There is treatment for asbestos lung cancer but it usually depends on the patient\'s health and the type of lung cancer that they have. It also depends on the size, location, and the extent of the tumor.

The different types of treatments are surgery, chemotherapy, radiation, and photodynamic therapy.

The surgery is done to remove a part of the lung but it all depends on where the tumor is. It is a very serious procedure!

By using Chemotherapy, the cancerous cells are killed with drugs. Radiation works by destroying the cancer cells in the treated area. And lastly, the photodynamic therapy uses light to kill the cancerous cells. It is done by injecting a chemical into the bloodstream and is absorbed by the cells. The light then activates the chemical, destroying and killing off the cancerous cells.
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To learn more about Asbestos Lung Cancer (Mesothelioma Cancer) including the various Symptoms of Mesothelioma, visit where we provide all this and much more!

Cancer: Types and Treatments


According to the reports issued by the American Cancer society for the year 2010, there were about 1,529,560 new cases were registered in hospitals and clinics of United States of America. Out of existing patients suffering from various types of cancer, 569,500 patients died. Dividing that by number of days in a year, each day almost 1,500 patients are dying due to cancer. The conditions are so bad that one out of every four person dying in America is due to cancer only. It has become one of the deadliest diseases in the country.
The figures are alarming. They are only depicting the conditions of a country like the US, which is supposedly one of the most developed economies of the world. For economies that are underprivileged and do not have sufficient medical care, the situation would be worse.

Cancer is a malignant disease in which the natural process of regeneration of cells in human body undergoes a drastic change. These cells continue to grow uncontrollable leading to formation of a lump like structure. Certain cancer tissues are also described as ulcers while they actually are a result of excessive multiplication of cells.

Types of Cancer A cancer is classified by the area in which there is an uncontrolled growth of cells. Common cancer types include
  • Prostate cancer: Prostate cancer originates in the prostate gland which is present in a man\'s reproductive system. Prostate cancer is the third most common types of fatal cancers in men especially after attaining the age of 75
  • Lung cancer: It starts from lungs and is frequently transmitted to other parts of the body such as bones. It is a common disease in both males and females.
  • Colon cancer: Colon cancer is also known as colorectal cancer. It is one of the few cancers that can be completely treated provided doctors find out during its initial stages.
  • Breast cancer: Starting from the breast, this is the most common type of cancer in females, especially after the age of 40. Men can also suffer from breast cancer.
  • Cervical cancer: Throughout the world, cervical cancer is the third most common type of cancer amongst women. This cancer originates in the female reproduction system
  • Hodgkin\'s lymphoma: It is the cancer in the lymph tissues of the body. is can be triggered by fatigue and often starts as a minor swelling in the lymph nodes.
  • Kidney cancer: Also known as renal cancer, it starts in the renal tubes of the body. It leads to kidney malfunction and failure. Kidney cancer can be easily transmitted via blood to other parts of the body.
  • Leukemia: Literal meaning of the word is white blood. This cancer starts in the blood cells of the body when WBC\'s in blood start to multiply uncontrollably. It is one of the most fatal kinds of cancer and infects the whole body due to circulation of infected blood.
Treatment for Cancer
Had cancer been curable, it would not have claimed so many innocent lives. This disease is practically incurable unless detected in the inception stage. Since cancer is caused by uncontrolled growth of cells, all its treatments revolve around externally terminating these un-required cells in the body. This growth can be controlled by surgically removing the infected organ. This step will only help in case the body could survive even in absence of that organ. In less fortunate cases, patients resort to chemotherapy and radiation which involve the use of chemicals and radio waves to eliminate cancerous cells. Otherwise, medicines can also be used for the same purpose.

About the Author
Clinically, Avastin is one of the most widely used cancer drugs. It can be used for various types of cancers such as colon or rectal cancer, lung and kidney cancer. It is also beneficial for patients suffering from breast cancer.

Skin Cancer- Types, Risk factors, Signs and Treatment

Skin Cancer- Types, Risk factors, Signs and Treatment
Skin cancer represents the most commonly diagnosed malignancy, surpassing lung, breast, colorectal and prostate cancer. Tumors develop primarily on areas of sun-exposed skin, including the scalp, face, lips, ears, neck, chest, arms and hands, and on the legs in women. Contrary to popular conception, skin cancer affects people of all skin tones, including those with darker complexions. Most skin cancers appear after age 50, but the sun\'s damaging effects begin at an early age, therefore protection should start in childhood in order to prevent skin cancer later in life.

Types of Skin Cancer

The main types of skin tumours are:

1. Melanomas are skin cancers that form in melanocytes (skin cells that make pigment). Even though it is rare, malignant melanoma is responsible for 75 of all skin cancer related death cases.

2. Basal Cell carcinomas are skin cancers that form in basal cells (small, round cells in the base of the outer layer of skin).

3. Squamous Cell carcinomas are skin cancers that form in squamous cells (flat cells that form the surface of the skin).
Rarer types of skin tumors are:

1. Neuroendocrine carcinomas which form in neuroendocrine cells (cells that release hormones in response to signals from the nervous system.) carcinoma of the skin.

2. Dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.

3. Merkel cell carcinoma.

4. Kaposi\'s sarcoma.

Risk Factors
Risk factors for non melanoma and melanoma skin cancers include: unprotected and or excessive exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation, fair complexion, occupational exposures to; coal tar, pitch, creosote, arsenic compounds, radium, family history, multiple or atypical moles, and severe sunburns as a child. Anyone with a family history of skin cancer also has an increased risk of developing skin cancer.

Signs of Skin Cancer

Signs of melanoma may include: A large brownish spot with darker speckles located anywhere on your body, a simple mole located anywhere on your body that changes in color, size or feel or that bleeds, a small lesion with an irregular border and red, white, blue or blue-black spots on your trunk or limbs, shiny, firm, dome-shaped bumps located anywhere on your body, dark lesions on your palms, soles, fingertips and toes, or on mucous membranes lining your mouth, nose, vagina and anus.

Signs of basal cell carcinoma can vary depending on the type and may include skin changes such as a: Firm, pearly bump with tiny blood vessels in a spider like appearance (telangiectasias). Signs of squamous cell carcinoma include any: persistent, firm, red bump on sun-exposed skin.

Depending on the type of skin cancer, dermatologic surgical treatments include: surgical excision; electrodessication and curettage which involves alternately scraping or burning the tumor in combination with low levels of electricity, cryosurgery and laser surgery. Other dermatologic treatments include radiation therapy and photodynamic therapy (a chemical is applied to the skin prior to exposure to a light source). Mohs micrographic surgery is preferred for large basal cell carcinomas, those that recur after previous treatment, or lesions affecting parts of the body where experience shows that recurrence is common after treatment by other methods.

Skin cancer can be deadly, but nearly all skin cancer can be treated if it is detected and diagnosed early, however skin cancer can recur, so it is important that you examine your skin regularly for any changes and see your doctor for a check-up every six to 12 months.

About the Author
The author has 35 years of experience in the pharmaceutical and alternative medicine fields. He has supervised clinical trials in a number of countries and has been responsible for the launch of one of the first low GI meal replacement bars.
He has published articles on subjects as varied as; Health, Investing, retirement, Thoroughbred breeding and network marketing. His websites include: and 

Ovarian Cancer – Types With Treatment


Peter sams

Ovarian cancer is cancer that begins in your ovaries. Only women have ovaries, so only women get this kind of cancer.

Many types of tumors can start growing in the ovaries. Some are benign, meaning they are noncancerous. Benign tumors do not spread and can be treated by removing one ovary, or part of the ovary. Ovarian cancer, however, is a cancerous tumor. If a cancerous tumor is not treated, it can spread to other parts of the body. To better understand what is happening inside you, it will help you to understand the basic anatomy of the ovaries.

Epithelial tumors

Epithelial tumors occur in the epithelium, which is the tissue that covers the outside of the ovary. About 90of ovarian cancers are of this type. The risk of epithelial ovarian cancer increases with age and occurs mostly in women over 60, but it can develop at any age.

There are several types of epithelial cancers of the ovary. They include:

• serous
• mucinous
• endometrioid
• clear cell
• undifferentiated or unclassifiable.

Germ Cell Tumor.

These types of tumors develop in the egg-producing tissue. Approximately 5 percent of women with ovarian cancer have germ cell tumors. This cancer type usually occurs in teenage girls and young women and is effectively treated when it is detected in the incipient stages.

There are 2 Germ Cell Tumour

Endodermal sinus tumor: This is a rare type of tumor that develops in girls and young women. It is characterized by a rapid growth process and can spread quickly. Chemotherapy is the most effective treatment option for this type of germ cell tumor.

Choriocarcinoma: This is another rare type of cancerous tumor that develops in the placenta during pregnancy. Choriocarcinomas can grow and spread rapidly. The most effective treatment option for this type of tumor is chemotherapy.
Stromal tumors.

These tumors develop in the estrogen- and progesterone-producing tissue that holds the ovary together.

Borderline Ovarian Cancers

Borderline ovarian cancers may be composed of serous, clear cell, endometrioid or mucinous material, but spread slowly and have a high cure rate. Ten to fifteen percent of epithelial cases are borderline, and they develop most often between the ages of thirty and eighty. In most cases, surgical removal is enough to cure a borderline growth.

Serous Tumors

Forty percent of epithelial tumors are serous growths. Serous cells produce a thin, watery fluid. Serous growths may be benign (serous cystadenoma), or malignant (serous cystadenocarcinoma). Fifty percent of such growths are malignant. Women between the ages of forty and sixty are most likely to develop serous tumors.


Local therapy: Surgery and radiation therapy are local therapies. They remove or destroy ovarian cancer in the pelvis. When ovarian cancer has spread to other parts of the body, local therapy may be used to control the disease in those specific areas.

Surgery — The first step in treating ovarian cancer usually involves surgical removal of as much cancerous tissue as possible (called optimal surgical debulking or optimal cytoreduction). Optimal surgical debulking impacts the woman\'s prognosis (cancer outcome) it also influences the choice of chemotherapy treatment as well. A woman is more likely to have optimal cytoreduction if her initial surgery is performed by a gynecologic oncologist, a specialist in cancers of the female reproductive system. This topic is addressed elsewhere.

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Read about Acne Cure and Treatments and Breast Enlargement Enhancement. Also read about Beauty and Makeup Tips

Bone Cancer - Types of Bone Cancer


Karl Dorads

Bone cancer types of cancer are a subcategory of cancers which afflict the bones. There can be two ways in which cancerous cells may affect the bones. They are called primary and secondary bone cancer respectively. The primary type of bone cancer is bone cancer type of cancer which arises from the cells of the bone itself. In secondary bone cancer, cancer cells from another part of the body, like the liver or the ovary, seed in the bone marrow and develop secondaries there. You will have to ascertain if the type of bone cancer is primary or secondary because treatment is directed at the focus of the cancer cells in most cases.

The different bone cancer types of secondary cancer that one may find is usually from the cancerous cells in the breast, prostate, lung, kidney or thyroid. This is by far the commonest type of bone cancer. It is caused by metastases when the cancer cells at the original site of cancer break away and seed in the bone marrow. They get to the bone marrow through the blood stream. The metastatic cells produce secondaries in the bone and make the bones brittle. This make the bones prone to fractures. Secondary foci may also affect the capacity of the bone marrow to produce the blood cells. The result is usually anemia, an increased susceptibility to infections and a bleeding tendency.

Primary bone cancer types of cancer are of different varieties. The varieties commonly seen include osteosarcoma, Ewing\'s sarcoma, chondrosarcoma and Spindle cell sarcoma. These varieties are based on the type of cell affected and the nature of the tumor. The osteosarcoma is by far the commonest primary bone cancer. This tumor has a predilection for younger ages and is common in children and teenagers. The sites where osteosarcomas are commonly found are the lower thigh, upper shin bone, upper arm and lower shin bone in decreasing order of frequency.

Ewing\'s sarcoma is another type of bone cancer, type of cancer being primary. This sarcoma arises from the soft tissues within the bone. The soft tissue generally refers to the connective tissue within the bone. This cancer is named after the surgeon who first described it. The cancer is common in teenagers. The usual sites for this cancer are the pelvic, thigh or shin bones. Contrast this cancer to the chondrosarcoma which is common in middle age. This type of cancer affects the catilage producing cells in the bone. It is a relatively slow growing cancer and is usually seen is the pelvis, thigh bone, upper arm, shoulder blade or ribs.

The last type of bone cancer type of cancer is spindle cell sarcoma. These cancers are more differentiated types of osteosarcoma and can be considered as the adult versions of osteosarcomas. There are 4 types of spindle cell sarcoma: undifferentiated sarcoma of bone, malignant fibrous histiocytoma, fibrosarcoma and leiomyosarcoma.Of these the undifferentiated sarcoma of bone does not have any special cell lineage and this undifferentiation makes it difficult to predict what type of cancer cells will originate from it.
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You can visit our website for more information about Cancer and Sarcoma. We have a lot of articles about Lung Cancer , Ovarian Cancer , Sarcoma Muscle Cancer, ...

Breast Cancer Type: Know The Sign And Treatment


alvis walter

The best treatment for breast cancer can be provided if the breast cancer type is known. Therefore knowing the different breast cancer types is important. After breast cancer diagnosis, the doctor may work to know the specifics of the tumor. The breast cancer type can be determined using a tissue sample from a breast biopsy or the tumor if surgery has been already performed. The treatment for breast cancer and breast cancer symptoms will depend on the type.
The following information is needed to determine breast cancer type:
Invasive or noninvasive cancer?
Knowing whether the cancer is invasive or noninvasive helps the doctor to determine if the cancer has spread further than the breast. The appropriate treatments and the risk for further development of cancer are also determined.
1. Noninvasive breast cancer: Noninvasive or in situ breast cancer refers to a type of cancer where the cells have remained within the place of origin and have not spread to tissues of the breast near the duct or lobule. The common type of noninvasive breast cancer is ductal cancer in situ. This cancer is confined to the lining of the milk ducts. The cells have not spread to the surrounding tissue of the breast.
2. Invasive breast cancer: Invasive breast cancers invade the surrounding tissues and spread outside the membrane that lines a duct or lobule. The caner cells thus travel to other regions of the body, including lymph nodes. A stage of I, II, III, or IV is indicative of invasive breast cancer.
Cancer began at which part of the breast?
The severity of breast cancer depends on the nature of tissue affected. It also indicates how the cancer will progress. The following are some areas where breast cancer develops:
1. Milk ducts: The most common form of Breast Cancer Type is ductal carcinoma. It affects the lining of the milk duct present within the breast. The ducts are the carriers of breast milk from the lobules to the nipple.
2. Milk-producing lobules: Lobular carcinoma originates in the breast lobules. This is the site of milk production. The lobules are connected to the ducts.
3. Connective tissues: Breast cancer rarely originates in the connective tissue that comprises of muscles, fats, and blood vessels. Cancer that develops in the connective tissue is known as sarcoma. Phyllodes tumor and angiosarcoma are two types of carcinomas that can develop in the breast.
What is the appearance of cancer cells?
The following factors are taken into consideration when a sample of the cancer is place under a microscope.
1. Cells with novel appearances: Invasive ductal carcinoma cells take on unique and novel appearances when viewed under a microscope.
2. Difference between cancer cells and normal ones: Cancer grade is decided based on the difference between cancer cells and normal ones. This will also affect breast cancer symptoms.
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About the Author
Alvis Walter is a cancer consultant and a guide for Breast Cancer Type . To know more information about Male Breast Cancer, Gamma Knife, malignant mesothelioma, breast cancer symptoms, Myelodysplastic Syndrome, Rhabdomyosarcoma and Mantle Cell Lymphoma visit

Breast Cancer Types

Breast cancer type is categorized by whether it begins in the ducts or lobules, the organs responsible for breast milk production. Medullary carcinoma accounts for 15of all breast cancer types. This breast cancer type represents 5of all diagnosis. IPR015525 Breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein Header EBIDatabasesInterPro Search Open in usermanual InterPro: " /> Jump to: InterProScan Databases Documentation FTP site Help Click on the icon for context sensitive help from the user manual. The breast cancer type 2 susceptibility protein (BRCA2) is a breast tumour suppressor with a potential function in the cellular response to DNA damage. Some breast cancer types express one or more of these proteins on their cell surface, while others express none. Media Relations Contacts Online Press Kit Rumors, Myths, and Truths Glossary About the American Cancer Society Breastfeeding, Other Factors May Affect Risk of Breast Cancer TypeAtlanta 2008/08/25 -Factors such as age at menopause as well as a woman?s breastfeeding practices can influence her risk of developing certain types of breast cancer.
The investigators found that reproductive risk factors varied considerably by breast cancer subtype. Their analysis included 1,023 women with breast cancer whose cells express the estrogen and progesterone receptors (called luminal cancers), 39 women with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer, and 78 triple-negative cases (no expression of estrogen, progesterone, or HER2 receptors). The study also included 1,476 women without breast cancer. ? They added that additional studies on the causes of breast cancer subtypes are needed to better understand the biology of the disease. Learn more about our commitment to providing complete, accurate, and private breast cancer information. The study?s results suggest that there are distinct and separate hormonal risk factors associated with different subtypes of breast cancer. Women with what is referred to as "triple-negative" breast cancer are more likely than other women with breast cancer to experience a relapse, a new study by Canadian researchers shows. Despite having a high risk of early recurrence, the study indicates that triple-negative breast cancer patients who remain disease-free for eight years are unlikely to die of breast cancer and may be "cured" of their disease.
Breast Feeding Will Lowers Risk Of Breast Cancer
Breastfeeding for 6 months or longer was associated with a lower risk of luminal cancer as well as triple-negative cancer, a type that can be particularly aggressive and difficult to treat. Understanding the specific type of breast cancer can help you ask better questions and work with your physicians to get the best breast cancer treatments. For more information on the types and stages of breast cancer, watch Beyond the Shock®. Medullary carcinoma accounts for 15of all breast cancer types. Infiltrating lobular carcinoma is a type of breast cancer that usually appears as a subtle thickening in the upper-outer quadrant of the breast. Making up about 2of all breast cancer diagnosis, tubular carcinoma cells have a distinctive tubular structure when viewed under a microscope. Typically this type of breast cancer is found in women aged 50 and above. Inflammatory breast cancer is a rare and very aggressive type of breast cancer that causes the lymph vessels in the skin of the breast to become blocked.
Breast Cancer Risk
The study\'s results suggest that there are distinct and separate hormonal risk factors associated with different subtypes of breast cancer. Amanda Phipps, a predoctoral research associate at the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle, and her colleagues conducted a study to better understand the specific risk factors for the subtypes of breast cancer, which are classified by expression of the estrogen receptor, the progesterone receptor, and the HER2 receptor. The investigators found that reproductive risk factors varied considerably by breast cancer subtype. Breastfeeding for 6 months or longer was associated with a lower risk of luminal cancer as well as triple-negative cancer, a type that can be particularly aggressive and difficult to treat. Both late age at menopause and use of estrogen plus progestin hormone therapy were associated with an increased risk of luminal disease. Finally, no differences in risks associated with number of children or the age when a woman first gave birth were observed by subtype. The study authors concluded that their results indicate that "certain reproductive factors may have a greater impact on risk of certain molecular subtypes of disease compared to others. Despite having a high risk of early recurrence, the study indicates that triple-negative breast cancer patients who remain disease-free for eight years are unlikely to die of breast cancer and may be "cured" of their disease. Insulin resistance, hyperinsulinemia, and changes in the signaling of growth hormones and steroid hormones associated with diabetes may affect the risk of breast cancer. Despite many proposed potential pathways, the mechanisms underlying an association between diabetes and breast cancer risk remain unclear, particularly because the 2 diseases share several risk factors, including obesity, a sedentary lifestyle, and possibly intake of saturated fat and refined carbohydrates, that may confound this association. Although the metabolic syndrome is closely related to diabetes and embraces additional components that might influence breast cancer risk, the role of the metabolic syndrome in breast carcinogenesis has not been studied and thus remains unknown.
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